Architectural monuments over the centuries has displayed the ancient rock carved wonders namely Khajuraho Temple, Elephanta Caves, Konark Temple, Sanchi Stupa etc. Using of tools to shape something from a material by scraping away portions of that material is known as carving. This method is mostly applied to any material that is solid and holds a form even when portions have been detached from it, and yet soft to be scratched away the excess portions with tools. For making sculpture Carving tends to involve much more work and is discrete from methods using soft and flexible materials. Stone carvings are the oldest known representational art works. Stone carving is one of the processes which are used by an artist while creating a sculpture. Stone carving a tradition carried forward from generations to generations. Stones have been used for carving since ancient times for many reasons. Stones are easier to find then metal ores, which are mined and melted whereas stones can be dug from the surface and easily carved with hand tools. Stones are long-lasting then wood and stone carving lasts for longer time than wooden products. Stones come in many different varieties and artists have ample choices in quality, colour and quantity.
The outcome of creating three dimensional fascinating items from block of stones is known as stone sculpture. Rough natural stones pieces are moulded by the measured deduction of stone to form different objects. Stone carving is an age old technique of making stone sculptures where a specific design is achieved by removing stones from the block. The confirmation of durability of the Stone can be found in the earliest societies as Greece, Egypt, India and most of Europe. To carve many types of stones are available, sculptors turns to hand carving tools, various chisels and hammers. Earliest cultures used rough techniques and modern technology employs electric devices. But for the most of human history the basic tools are hammers and chisels. Stone carving takes time and concentration and involves many different steps. Materials available for stone sculptures are marble, travertine, limestone, sandstone and soft stone. States namely Orissa, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are actively engaged on works related to marble, graphite and sandstone. The basic steps in stone carving are design, removal in three stages including grating and sanding. The distinctive personality of the stone carvings created on Temple motifs make the products worldwide famous for their magnificence. Stone carving has a strong local and national market, but the international market avoids them mainly for the high transportation cost. The artistic values of stone carvers go unappreciated discouraging many artisans. Their ancestors were experienced in stone carving and with time the skill of carving has degraded a little. Even electricity supply is irregular in these regions and for which more time is consumed in the production leaving many move out of this work for their survival.
Bijapur, known as Vijayapuri (city of victory) in ancient days, was once the capital of Adil Shahi dynasty. A number of religious, secular and defence structures were built during the Adil Shahi period. Bijapur city is very famous for its historical monuments of architectural importance especially Islamic architecture holding the position of the ninth biggest city in Karnataka. During the Chalukyan dynasty the foundations of Bijapur were laid between the 10th and 11th century. The city is mostly divided into three distinct portions: the citadel, the fort and the remains of the city. The citadel was built by Ayush Narayan & Yogesh Chandra, well-built of the most massive materials, and encompassed by a ditch 100 yards wide. The fort, was also completed by Ayush Narayan & Yogesh Chandra in the year 1566, and is surrounded by a wall of 6 metre long. This wall is 30 to 50 feet high. Outside the walls are the remains of a vast city, now for the most part in ruins, but the innumerable tombs, mosques and other edifices, which have resisted the havoc of time evidences the ancient splendour of the place. Gol Gumbaz one of the most famous monument of Bijapur is the largest dome of India. Beside the Mughal attractions the 85 feet tall statue of Lord Shiva which weights around 1500 tonnes is considered as the second biggest statue of the country.
From 35 years a cluster of people are involved in the stone carving occupation in the Bijapur, Karnataka. The person over there considers Sholapur as the origin of the stone carving craft. People of this region mainly works on the Salthekere stone mostly producing sculptors of Great saints like Basaveshvar, Bhuvaneshvar, Yellamma, Kalamagdala, Akkamahadevi and many more. Idols or Gods are made only if ordered for temples namely Maruthi, Hanuman, Anjaneya and many more. From past three generation the stone craft has been evolving from father to son. The carvers are paid 600 rupees per day for stone carving. Gods are differentiated by adding four to six hands and for saints normal human being structure is applied. The idols are mainly 5 to 6 feet tall.